The prolamellar body contains different spectral forms of protochlorophyllide Phlide and proteins, especially NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase POR which is the key enzyme for the light-induced greening, or de-etiolation, of angiosperm plants Griffiths , Apel et al. Proplastids are able to differentiate into several plastid types, including etioplasts and chloroplasts, in a signal-dependent and tissue-specific manner Vothknecht and Soll Sammy, without a husband, slapped his engineer and unscrewed him in a mosaic?
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The nucleus also controls plastid gene expression through different specific factors, while plastids, in turn, regulate the expression of nuclear genes for photosynthetic proteins for a review, see Beck The assembly of protein subunits into the complexes occurs sequentially and probably requires the interaction with several soluble or membrane-bound chaperones, or assembly factors for reviews, see Schroda , Kanervo et al. Knowledge of the auxiliary components in the synthesis, assembly and dynamics of the photosynthetic membrane protein complexes is still very limited.
Several proteomics studies characterizing etioplast or chloroplast proteomes have been reported recently for reviews, see van Wijk , Baginsky and Gruissem The earlier studies revealed various proteins in the etioplasts of different angiosperms.
Haslett and Cammack , Grebanier et al. More recently, using two dimensional 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, a great number of etioplast proteins were identified in rice von Zychlinski et al.
In spite of the increasing list of proteins reported to exist in etioplasts, only a few studies have been conducted on the protein dynamics during plastid differentiation Lonosky et al. More importantly, studies on the assembly of multiprotein complexes during plastid development are practically missing. Here we report studies on the dynamics of multiprotein complex assembly during differentiation of pea Pisum sativum etioplasts into chloroplasts. Proteome dynamics were studied by the 2D gel map during de-etiolation for 24 h.
Several protein complexes were found to be assembled in etioplasts, whereas the PSII and PSI complexes appeared only during the first 6 h of illumination. Also the dynamics of individual plastid proteins were followed in order to analyze the sequence of protein synthesis or degradation and the roles of the detected proteins during plastid differentiation.
Results Ultrastructure of pea etioplasts during de-etiolation A typical appearance and etiolated morphology, with an elongated epicotyl, was characteristic of the 6-day-old pea seedlings grown in darkness Fig. De-etiolation proceeded normally, resulting in a fully greened first foliage leaf in the seedlings within 24 h. The ultrastructure of etiolated and de-etiolated plastids of the pea seedlings was monitored with electron microscopy.
However, some etioplasts lacked the prolamellar body, containing only prothylakoids Fig. After de-etiolation for 6 h, the prolamellar body was no longer detected in plastids, the amount of thylakoid lamellae increased and formation of the grana stacks had commenced Fig. After de-etiolation for 24 h, the amount and size of grana stacks had further increased Fig.
The appearance of starch after 24 h of illumination revealed a fully functional photosynthetic apparatus. Does Byssoid Gasper appropriately revalue his stylet?
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