Read James - 'Tagalog: Ang Dating Biblia ()' translation - Huwag sabihin ng sinoman pagka siya'y tinutukso, Ako'y tinutukso ng Dios; sapagka't ang. Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am being tempted by God”; for God cannot be tempted by evil, and He Himself does not tempt anyone. When tempted, no one should say, “God is tempting me.” For God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does he tempt anyone; but each person is tempted when.
James 1 13 and 14 dating - Radiometric dating
So they're actually going to form neutrons. And we'll show a neutron with a lowercase n, and a 1 for its mass number. And we don't write anything, because it has no protons down here. Like we had for nitrogen, we had seven protons. So it's not really an element.
It is a subatomic particle. But you have these neutrons form. And every now and then-- and let's just be clear-- this isn't like a typical reaction. But every now and then one of those neutrons will bump into one of the nitrogen's in just the right way so that it bumps off one of the protons in the nitrogen and essentially replaces that proton with itself. So let me make it clear.
So it bumps off one of the protons. So instead of seven protons we now have six protons. But this number 14 doesn't go down to 13 because it replaces it with itself. So this still stays at And now since it only has six protons, this is no longer nitrogen, by definition.
This is now carbon. And that proton that was bumped off just kind of gets emitted. So then let me just do that in another color. And a proton that's just flying around, you could call that hydrogen 1. And it can gain an electron some ways. If it doesn't gain an electron, it's just a hydrogen ion, a positive ion, either way, or a hydrogen nucleus.
But this process-- and once again, it's not a typical process, but it happens every now and then-- this is how carbon forms.
So this right here is carbon You can essentially view it as a nitrogen where one of the protons is replaced with a neutron. And what's interesting about this is this is constantly being formed in our atmosphere, not in huge quantities, but in reasonable quantities.
So let me write this down. And let me be very clear. Let's look at the periodic table over here. So carbon by definition has six protons, but the typical isotope, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon So carbon is the most common.
So most of the carbon in your body is carbon But what's interesting is that a small fraction of carbon forms, and then this carbon can then also combine with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. And then that carbon dioxide gets absorbed into the rest of the atmosphere, into our oceans. It can be fixed by plants. When people talk about carbon fixation, they're really talking about using mainly light energy from the sun to take gaseous carbon and turn it into actual kind of organic tissue.
And so this carbon, it's constantly being formed. It makes its way into oceans-- it's already in the air, but it completely mixes through the whole atmosphere-- and the air. And then it makes its way into plants. And plants are really just made out of that fixed carbon, that carbon that was taken in gaseous form and put into, I guess you could say, into kind of a solid form, put it into a living form.
That's what wood pretty much is. It gets put into plants, and then it gets put into the things that eat the plants. So that could be us. Now why is this even interesting?
I've just explained a mechanism where some of our body, even though carbon is the most common isotope, some of our body, while we're living, gets made up of this carbon thing. Well, the interesting thing is the only time you can take in this carbon is while you're alive, while you're eating new things.
Because as soon as you die and you get buried under the ground, there's no way for the carbon to become part of your tissue anymore because you're not eating anything with new carbon And what's interesting here is once you die, you're not going to get any new carbon And that carbon that you did have at you're death is going to decay via beta decay-- and we learned about this-- back into nitrogen So kind of this process reverses.
So it'll decay back into nitrogen, and in beta decay you emit an electron and an electron anti-neutrino. I won't go into the details of that. But essentially what you have happening here is you have one of the neutrons is turning into a proton and emitting this stuff in the process.
James, the son of Zebedee and James, the son of Alphaeus , but it is unlikely that either of these wrote the letter. The other apostle James, the son of Alphaeus, is not prominent in the Scriptural record, and very little is known about him. Paul described him as "the brother of the Lord" in Galatians 1: Pseudonymous authorship 3 above implies that the person named "James" is respected and doubtless well known. Moreover, this James, brother of Jesus, is honored by the epistle written and distributed after the lifetime of James, the brother of Jesus.
The Protestant reformer Martin Luther denied it was the work of an apostle and termed it an "epistle of straw"  as compared to some other books in the New Testament, partly because of the conflict he thought it raised with Paul on the doctrine of justification see below.
Many scholars consider the epistle to be written in the late 1st or early 2nd centuries: The cultured Greek language of the Epistle, it is contended, could not have been written by a Jerusalem Jew. Some scholars argue for a primitive version of the letter composed by James and then later polished by another writer. Some see parallels between James and 1 Peter , 1 Clement , and the Shepherd of Hermas and take this to reflect the socio-economic situation Christians were dealing with in the late 1st or early 2nd century.
It thus could have been written anywhere in the Empire that Christians spoke Greek. There are some scholars who argued for Syria.
Carbon 14 dating 1 :
Like we had for nitrogen, we had seven protons. That's what wood pretty much is. Many scholars consider the epistle to be written in the late 1st or early 2nd centuries: Moreover, this James, brother of Jesus, is honored by the epistle written and distributed after the lifetime of James, the brother of Jesus.
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